How will my doctor know if I have ovarian cancer?

How will my doctor know if I have ovarian cancer?Women who have regular pelvic exams increase the chance that, if ovarian cancer occurs, it will be found before the disease causes symptoms. However, pelvic exams often cannot find ovarian cancer at an early stage. Often, the doctor orders a blood test to measure a substance in the blood called CA-125. This substance, called a tumor marker, can be produced by ovarian cancer. However, CA-125 is not always present in women with ovarian cancer, and it may be present in women who have benign ovarian conditions....

What are the symptoms for ovarian cancer?

As a tumor grows, a woman may notice these symptoms: Swelling, bloating or general discomfort in the lower abdomen Loss of appetite or a feeling of fullness, even after a light meal Gas Indigestion Nausea Weight loss Diarrhea, constipation or frequent urination caused by a large tumor pressing on nearby organs, such as the bowel or bladder Less often, bleeding from the vagina is a symptom of ovarian cancer Most of these may also be caused by benign (noncancerous) diseases of the ovaries and by cancers of ot...

What are the causes and risk factors for ovarian cancer?

It is difficult to discover what actually causes cancer from one person to another, but researchers have discovered several factors that increase a woman’s likelihood of developing ovarian cancer. Some risk factors for ovarian cancer include: Most ovarian cancers develop after age 65 Prolonged use of the fertility drug clomiphene citrate Women who started menstruating before age 12, had no children, or had their first child after age 30, and/or experienced menopause after age 50 Not eating enough fruits, ve...

What is ovarian cancer?

There are several types of ovarian cancer. Ovarian tumors are the most histologically diverse group of tumors. At least 80 percent of malignant ovarian tumors arise from the lining of the ovary and are called epithelial carcinomas. The most common type is serous cyst adenocarcinoma, which accounts for 75 percent of cases of epithelial ovarian cancer. The remaining 20 percent of malignant ovarian tumors are germ cell and sex cord-stromal cell tumors, which are non-epithelial in origin, and metastatic carcino...

What’s new in endometrial cancer research and treatment?

Molecular pathology of endometrial cancer: Recent research has improved our understanding of how changes in certain molecules can cause normal endometrial cells to become cancerous. It has been known for several years that mutations (damage or defects) to DNA can alter important genes that regulate cell growth. If these genes are damaged, excess growth may result in cancer formation. Sometimes, endometrial cancer and colon cancer may seem to "run in a family." We now know that some of these families have a ...

What should you ask your physician about endometrial cancer?

It is important for you to have honest, open discussions with your physician. You should ask questions, no matter how trivial you may think they are. Some questions to consider: What type and grade of endometrial cancer do I have? Has my cancer spread beyond the uterus? What is the stage of my cancer and what does that mean in my case? What treatments are appropriate for me? What do you recommend? Why? What should I do to be ready for treatment? What risks or side effects should I expect? What are the chanc...

How is endometrial cancer treated?

The choice of treatment depends largely on the type of cancer and stage of the disease at discovery. Other factors might play a part in choosing the best treatment plan. These might include your age, your overall state of health, whether you plan to have children, and other personal considerations. Be sure you understand all the risks and side effects of the various therapies before making a decision about treatment. There are four basic types of treatment for women with endometrial cancer - surgery, radiat...

Can endometrial cancer be found early?

In most cases, being alert to any signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer and discussing them promptly with your healthcare provider permits diagnosis at an early stage. Unfortunately, some endometrial cancers may reach an advanced stage before recognizable signs and symptoms are present. Early detection improves the chances that your endometrial cancer will be treated successfully. Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer include unusual bleeding, spotting or other discharge, and/or pelvic pain and/or mas...

Do we know what causes endometrial cancer?

We do not know what causes most cases of endometrial cancer, but we do know what certain risk factors are. A great deal of research is under way to learn more about the disease. Most known risk factors affect the balance between estrogen and progesterone in the body. Scientists have recently learned much about changes in the DNA of certain genes that occur when normal endometrial cells become cancerous.

What are the risk factors for endometrial cancer?

A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. The ovaries normally produce two main types of female hormones - estrogen and progesterone. The balance between these two hormones changes each month, producing a woman's monthly periods and helping to keep the endometrium healthy. When the balance of these two hormones shifts toward relatively more estrogen, a woman's risk for developing endometrial cancer increases...

Things to preapre for Cervical Cancer Treatment

Here are some questions you may want to ask your doctor before treatment begins: What is the stage (extent) of my disease? What are my treatment choices? Which do you recommend? Why? What are the chances that the treatment will be successful? Would a clinical trial be appropriate for me? What are the risks and possible side effects of each treatment? How long will treatment last? Will it affect my normal activities? What is the treatment likely to cost? What is likely to happen without treatment? How often ...

Is a second opinion important for cervical cancer treatment?

Before starting treatment, you may want a second pathologist to review the diagnosis and another specialist to review the treatment plan. Some insurance companies require a second opinion; others may cover second opinion if the patient requests it. It may take a week or two to arrange for a second opinion. This short delay will not reduce the chance that treatment will be successful. A gynecologic oncologist is usually in the best position to offer a patient an expert opinion on the diagnosis and management...

How is cancer of the cervix treated?

The choice of treatment for cervical cancer depends on the location and the size of the tumor, the stage (extent) of the disease, the woman's age and general health, and other factors. Gynecologic oncologists have expertise in the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of patients with cervical carcinoma. They also have surgical expertise in the procedures of radical hysterectomy, pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy, pretreatment surgical staging procedures, and exenterations for patients with recurrent cerv...

Treatment for precancerous lesions

Treatment for precancerous lesionsTreatment for precancerous lesions may cause cramping or other pain, bleeding or a watery discharge. Occasionally, a hysterectomy is performed to treat precancerous conditions of the cervix. However, the hysterectomy is considered to be unnecessary in the great majority of cases of precancerous conditions of the cervix unless other gynecologic problems co-exist. Women are likely to benefit from pretreatment evaluation by a gynecologic oncologist if they have: A suspicious visible growth of the cervix A Pap ...

How are precancerous conditions of the cervix treated?

All treatments directed toward neoplastic conditions of the cervix should be based on a biopsy and not a Pap smear alone. Treatment for a precancerous lesion of the cervix depends on a number of factors. These factors include whether the lesion is low or high grade, whether the woman wants to have children in the future, the woman's age and general health, and the preference of the woman and her doctor. A woman with a low-grade lesion may not need further treatment, especially if the abnormal area was remov...

D&C for Cervical Cancer

In a few cases, it may not be clear whether an abnormal Pap Test or a woman's symptoms are caused by problems in the cervix or in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus). In this situation, the doctor may do dilatation and curettage (D&C). The doctor stretches the cervical opening and uses a curette to scrape tissue from the lining of the uterus as well as from the cervical canal. Like conization, this procedure requires local or general anesthesia and may be done in the doctor's office or in the hospita...

      1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9