How will a physician make a diagnosis of head and neck cancer?

If a physician suspects a head and neck cancer, he or she will order specific diagnostic tests, depending upon the location of the cancer. These tests may include: Physical examination Inspection of oral and nasal cavities using mirrors and fiber-optic scopes Examination of suspicious lesions Examination of the back of the tongue Blood tests, including a complete blood count and liver function test A blood draw to check for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody measurement CT, PET, MRI imaging or X-rays Bio...

What is done if I have to have sinus surgery?

You should first understand that I am not a surgeon, so this is from the perspective of someone who has seen the surgery, and had the surgery done, but who doesn't do the surgery himself. The surgery, called functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), may be done either under local anesthesia or general anesthesia. Many very experienced sinus surgeons prefer to use local anesthesia. The operation generally takes approximately 2-3 hours. During that period of time, the ear, nose and throat doctor will do any...

What is the place of acupuncture in sinusitis?

A wide variety of non-traditional treatments have been used in treatment of sinusitis. Acupuncture has been used to help open the sinuses allowing the mucus to drain better. I had acupuncture before surgery. It helped, but I still had to have surgery. Most patients we have seen have felt that it has helped open their sinuses up, but no studies have confirmed this. A CT scan (x-ray) done before and after on our several of our patients has not shown any substantial change.

How is sinusitis diagnosed?

It may be extremely difficult to diagnose a sinus infection early in the course of the disease. After taking a careful history, which is extremely valuable in helping diagnose sinusitis, and doing a physical exam, the diagnosis is typically made by looking inside the nose with a flexible rubber or rigid steel tube called an endoscope. Depending on what is found at the time of the endoscopy, an x-ray (CT scan) of your sinuses may need to be done. Previously, x-rays of the sinuses were done. Now CT scans are ...

Why do we have sinuses?

The sinuses are air pockets located inside the bones in the skull. They are located to either side of the nose (maxillary), behind and in between the eyes (ethmoid), in the forehead (frontal), and there is one much further back in the head (sphenoid). (For a better understanding of this, please look at the CT scan page when you finish reading this page.) They are probably present to reduce the weight of the skull as well as to create resonance to the voice. The sinuses are lined with very fine hair-like pro...

What’s new in endometrial cancer research and treatment?

Molecular pathology of endometrial cancer: Recent research has improved our understanding of how changes in certain molecules can cause normal endometrial cells to become cancerous. It has been known for several years that mutations (damage or defects) to DNA can alter important genes that regulate cell growth. If these genes are damaged, excess growth may result in cancer formation. Sometimes, endometrial cancer and colon cancer may seem to "run in a family." We now know that some of these families have a ...

How is cancer of the cervix treated?

The choice of treatment for cervical cancer depends on the location and the size of the tumor, the stage (extent) of the disease, the woman's age and general health, and other factors. Gynecologic oncologists have expertise in the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of patients with cervical carcinoma. They also have surgical expertise in the procedures of radical hysterectomy, pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy, pretreatment surgical staging procedures, and exenterations for patients with recurrent cerv...

How will I be diagnosed for colorectal cancer?

To find the cause of symptoms, the doctor will ask about your personal and family medical history. He will do a physical exam, and may order laboratory tests. In addition to the exams discussed above, the doctor may also order the following tests: Lower GI series – X-rays of the colon and rectum (the lower gastrointestinal tract). The x-rays are taken after the patient is given an enema with a white, chalky solution containing barium. (This test is sometimes called a barium enema.) The barium outlines the c...

How do you diagnose endocrine cancer?

The doctor will ask about your medical history and will do a careful physical exam. You most likely will be asked to give blood for hormone measurements, and you may also be asked to have an ultrasound, CT scan or MRI to enable the doctor to determine where the growth is located and whether it has spread. The only sure way to tell whether cancer is present is with a biopsy. The doctor removes a small sample of tumor tissue, which is examined under a microscope by a pathologist. If cancer cells are found, th...

Surgery for brain tumors?

Surgery is the usual treatment for most brain tumors. To remove the tumor, the neurosurgeon makes an opening in the skull. This is called a craniotomy. Whenever possible, the surgeon removes all of the brain tumor, but sometimes only part can be removed if removing would cause damage to vital brain tissue. Some tumors cannot be removed, and a biopsy is done to help decide treatment. Sometimes the biopsy can be done with a CT scan or MRI to pinpoint the tumor’s exact location, and only a small hole is needed...